April 21, 2020

兒童成長3個階段特性解密

當了父母後,漸漸減少外出應酬、跟朋友吃飯,每天工作下班都想快點趕回家跟孩子互動一下。家長的生活工作重心瞬間就轉移到一個孩子自己身上,甚麼事情都想為他們安排學生最好的。不過家長要注意的是,孩子在成長的不同階段有不同的需要,因此我們在下決定前,必須先了解學生清楚自己孩子一個真正的需求。隨著時間的推移,孩子們每天都在變化。 親愛的家長,你的孩子在哪個階段

兒童是祖國未來發展的希望,關注兒童的健康成長也是關乎到祖國的發展。在中國內地,還有許多偏遠山區的兒童上不起學,吃不飽飯,穿不暖,農戶家庭脫離貧困還比較困難,為此某慈善機構以捐贈牲畜,教授畜牧和種植業的技巧,幫助農戶脫貧,助養兒童無憂成長。

第一階段:0至3歲,處於這個階段的孩子學習就像一塊海綿,大人給甚麼,他們便會全數吸收。孩子就如一張白紙,慢慢摸索四周、探索世界,從而產生自我。他們會開給有自己的感覺、思考、記憶等意識。 在這個階段,父母更好地發展他們的感官和認知能力,從孩子的角度發展和引導他們的思維,而不是限制他們的思維。大腦跟身體機能極速發展,由只懂自己躺在一個床上,開始可以進行坐起來,學會爬行、走路,最後更跑跑跳跳停不了,空閒時可以帶孩子學習多去戶外走走。但他們的免疫力還沒有足夠好,比較脆弱,容易生病,記得帶上孩子打爸爸媽媽疫苗。

第二階段:4至7歲,孩子在這個階段他們現有的理解在一定程度上,不再懵懵懂懂的。 他們有自我意識,能夠解決小問題..這時,家長可以集中精力為孩子好習慣的訓練,而且還進入了一些與他們的規則,讓他們知道守法的重要性。這個時期的孩子在公共場所,如哭鬧,與他人打架等,父母需要立即糾正孩子錯誤的方式來吸引注意大人的壞習慣更調皮,以免討厭的錯誤,難以恢複。孩子們接觸到社會和情感的發展。

第三階段:8至12歲,在這個階段的孩子,令家長最為煩惱。他們不再是人仔細細的小孩,而是我們慢慢發展步入社會青少年階段的小大人了。半成年人處於叛逆期,他們已經有了自己的思想,他們的性格和認知能力在前兩個階段逐漸形成。 他們有控制自己生活和世界的強烈欲望,所以他非常反對父母。 他們在叛亂的中途

此外,這是他們的發展時期。 父母根據孩子的需要准備均衡的食物,使他們更強壯。此外,家長自己的情緒更加集中,因為在這個階段,他們很容易被操縱的情緒,缺乏自尊,不知道我們是否應該打開你的心髒,與他人交談。家長最好不要視他們為「兒童」,反而應把他們當作「年輕人」,比起用父母身份,跟孩子當朋友的溝通效果更好。

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November 10, 2017

Research associate, sociology

Perspectives on decolonising and diversifying English teaching

Many thanks for Priyamvada Gopal’s excellent piece on the moral, intellectual and cultural necessity of widening the literary canon and curriculum (English teaching has to go beyond elite white men, 28 October). As an English teacher, I am passionate that my students come into contact with – and love – all manner of great literature, from wherever and whomever it may come. That includes Chaucer, Shakespeare, Coleridge, et al – but by definition it must also include many others, including Morrison, Tagore, and Breeze.

Some years ago, I taught The Color Purple. My students were roughly split down the middle in terms of enjoyment and engagement – to be expected with large classes of adolescents. I did my utmost to support everyone to engage as far as possible, and to work critically with the text: students in the main did well. Less expected, and more troubling, was thinly veiled hostility from some outraged parents, complaining that it wasn’t "proper English”. Despite explanations that it was vernacular African-American English, and just as valid as, say, Burns’ Scots English, or indeed the language of another novel option, Burgess’s A Clockwork Orange (which I also love), they remained unconvinced.

Interesting that these same parents were far more comfortable with viewing Burgess’s proudly ergodic piece as a worthy linguistic challenge – while seeing real-life speech in Walker’s equally thought-provoking work as somehow degrading. As my fantastic head of department (who opted for A Clockwork Orange) asked, if literature isn’t about experiencing life in someone else’s shoes, what is it good for?
Jonathan Doering
Barnsley, South Yorkshire

• As academic staff at the University of Cambridge, we offer our solidarity with Lola Olufemi and express our condemnation of the distorted coverage in some sections of the media of the "decolonising the curriculum” efforts at Cambridge. A large and diverse group of students and faculty from nearly a dozen subjects has been working during the past year to explore ways in which our curricula can become more inclusive and representative. We’ve also discussed how to study European subjects, ideas and events within their imperial contexts. The Telegraph’s presentation of this effort as a confrontation between students and faculty – or, even worse, an attempt by a black woman to "drop white authors” from reading lists – is deliberately misleading and racially inflammatory. In a week when public attention has rightly focused on the need to increase the numbers of BME students and other underrepresented groups at Oxbridge, the errors, misrepresentations and tone of the articles in the Telegraph, Daily Mail and elsewhere can only set back the cause of equality and inclusion.
Maha Abdelrahman Reader in development studies and Middle East politics, Ben Alcott Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Seth Archer Research fellow, history, John Arnold Professor of medieval history, Tom Arnold-Forster Research fellow in history, Gonville & Caius College, Melissa Calaresu Lecturer in history, Gonville & Caius College, Ha-Joon Chang Reader, economics Ben Alcott Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Seth Archer Research fellow, History, John Arnold Professor of medieval history, Melissa Calaresu Lecturer in history, Gonville & Caius College, Ha-Joon Chang Reader, economics; Director, Centre of Development Studies, Andrew Arsan Senior lecturer, history, Arthur Asseraf Lecturer, history, Gareth Austin Professor of economic history, Patrick Baert Professor of social theory, Sociology, Duncan Bell Reader, politics and international studies, Adam Branch Director, Centre of African Studies; Lecturer, Politics and International Studies, Brendan Burchell Reader, sociology, Joel Chalfen Fellow and director of studies for drama, Homerton College, Ian Chambers Lecturer, history, Joya Chatterji Professor of South Asian history and director, Centre of South Asian Studies, Martin Crowley Reader in modern French thought and culture, Devon Curtis Senior lecturer, politics and international studies, Aled Davies Teaching associate, politics and international studies, Lucy Delap Reader in modern British and gender history, Leigh Denault Fellow and director of studies in history, Churchill College, Tyler Denmead Lecturer, education, Manali Desai Lecturer, sociology, Jane Dinwoodie Fellow in history, Jesus College, Katie Dow Senior research associate, Sociology, Saul Dubow Smuts professor of commonwealth history, Elizabeth Duignan Bye-fellow and director of studies in education, Homerton College, Harri Englund Professor of social anthropology, Bronwen Everill Lecturer in History, Gonville and Caius College, Shailaja Fennell Lecturer, development studies, Sarah Franklin Professor of sociology and head of department, Nicholas Gay Professor of molecular and cellular biochemistry, Loraine Gelsthorpe Professor and director of the institute of criminology, Gary Gerstle Mellon professor of American history, Jenny Gibson Lecturer, education, Priyamvada Gopal Teaching fellow in English, Churchill College, Andrea Mariko Grant Lecturer, social anthropology, Jeremy Green Lecturer, politics and international studies, Julia Guarneri Lecturer, history, Nicholas Guyatt Reader in north American history, Eva Hartmann Lecturer, education, Lottie Hoare Teaching associate, education, Georgina Horrell Teaching associate, education, Iza Hussin Lecturer, politics and international studies, Maria Iacovou Reader in quantitative sociology Sam James Lecturer, Christ’s College, Ewan Jones Lecturer, English, Sebastian Keibek Research Fellow, History, Sarah Kennedy Research fellow in English, Downing College, Mary Laven Professor of early modern history, Sian Lazar Senior lecturer, social anthropology, David Lehmann Emeritus reader, sociology and Latin American studies, Charlotte Lemanski Senior lecturer, geography, Rachel Leow Lecturer, history, Peter Mandler Professor of modern cultural history, Ella McPherson Lecturer, sociology Noémie Merleau-Ponty  Thomas Jeffrey Miley Lecturer, sociology, Mónica Moreno Figueroa Senior lecturer, sociology, Renaud Morieux Senior lecturer, history, Kamal Munir Reader, Judge Business School, Yael Navaro, Reader, social anthropology, David Nally Senior lecturer, geography, Joanna Page Reader in Latin American literature; Director, Centre of Latin American Studies, Tiffany Page Lecturer, sociology, Maria Lúcia G Pallares-Burke Research associate, Centre of Latin American Studies, Sarah Pearsall Senior lecturer, history, Kate Peters Senior lecturer in history, Murray Edwards College, Helen Pfeifer Lecturer, history, Robert Pralat, Research associate, sociology, Andrew Preston Professor of American history, Sarah Radcliffe Professor of Latin American geography, Gabriela Ramos Senior lecturer, history, Pedro Ramos-Pinto Senior lecturer, history, Andrew Sanchez Lecturer, social anthropology, Sertaç Sehlikoglu Research fellow in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, Pembroke College, Sujit Sivasundaram, Reader, history, Paulina Sliwa Senior lecturer, philosophy, Matthew Sparkes Teaching associate, sociology, Emma Spary Reader in the history of modern European knowledge, Arathi Sriprakash Lecturer, education, Jay Stock Reader, archaeology, Andrew Thompson Lecturer in history, Queens’ College, Paul Warde Reader in environmental history, Chris Warnes Senior lecturer, English, Ruth Watson Lecturer, History, Steven Watson Lecturer, education, Darin Weinberg Reader, sociology, Lauren Wilcox Lecturer, politics and international studies, Graham Denyer Willis Lecturer, development studies and Latin American studies, Fiona Wright Research associate and affiliated lecturer, social anthropology, Ayşe Zarakol, Reader, politics and international studies

• I’m mystified by the controversy over the lack of black and minority ethnic authors on English courses at Cambridge University (Coverage of call to decolonise English course made student ‘target’ for abuse, 27 October). Studying humanities (English literature and history) from 1998 to 2001 at the then very new University of Lincoln, there were several units on post-colonial literature, with extensive reading lists including Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, the work of Kenyan writer Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, The Joys of Motherhood by Buchi Emecheta, Sam Selvon’s Lonely Londoners, Hanif Kureshi’s Buddha of Suburbia and the Malgudi novels of RK Narayan. What does this say about the quality, breadth and progressiveness of the education students get at the UK’s supposedly top university?
Ian Sinclair

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